澳門新福利公共汽車 Transportes Urbanos de Macau, S.A.R.L.

創立於一九五二年,前身為澳門福利公共汽車股份有限公司的新福利,曾經是澳門街最大的公營巴士營運商,於一九八八年進行重組,成為今天的新福利公共汽車有限公司。

在福利營運年代,車隊主要由來自英國的二手巴士所組成,於一九七五年開始,福利先後從英國不同營運商引進合共十一部不同牌子的雙層巴士,行走途經澳氹大橋之巴士線,其中兩架更被改裝成開蓬巴士,廣受旅客歡迎。除此以外福利亦於差不多時間,分三個購買合約從英國利蘭,購入合共十七架亞比安Viking EVK55CL全新單層巴士,配上由香港聯合及新昌提供的車身。除了英國產品外,七十年代的福利車隊亦包括了日產的Civilian小巴,以配合政府「小巴行小路」政策,至於日產亦在一九八七年成功向福利提供六架新型Civilian小巴,只是新車交付時福利已經重組成新福利。除了日產小巴,一九八三年至八四年福利亦購入合共十架五十鈴大巴,當中四架配用黃明車身的五十鈴,配備了由獨立引擎驅動的空調系統,行走當時往返港澳碼頭的3A豪華巴士路線,餘下六架裝有新昌車身的五十鈴新車,則以非空調巴士形式出現,直到過渡至新福利時候,才改成空調巴士。

當福利於一九八八年重組成新福利之後管理層大舉投資,積極引進新車以及推行車隊空調化,藉此改善服務質素,當日引進的新車包括有三菱BK大型巴士以及Rosa小巴,當中後者在新福利發展歷程中,一直扮演著重要角色。踏入九十年代,新福利更從歐洲廠商引進巴士到澳門,計有丹尼士飛鏢,平治O814小巴以及澳門首款低地台巴士,猛獅13.230。新福利亦於一九九六年開始,開發及測試電子收費系統,最終演變成今天全澳廣泛使用的電子收費系統「澳門通」。

隨著澳門賭權開放,以及澳門歷史城區被納入世界文化遺產名錄,吸引更多旅客到澳門遊覽,在提供發展機遇時,同時帶來多挑戰。 各個娛樂場所提供稱發財車的免費穿梭巴士,由於路線方便直接,吸引遊客以至本地市民乘搭。包括新福利在內的公營巴士公司不單止面對來自爭取乘客方面的競爭,同時由於勞工市場未能提供充足人手,亦要面對招聘車長方面的競爭,令到營運環境愈見惡劣。為了面對相關困局,新福利開始採購大型巴士,而且除了小型巴士外,新巴士來源亦由歐洲及日本廠家,變成來自中國大陸的製造商,澳門公共巴士市場的面貌從此被改寫了。

新福利除了在澳門營運巴士服務,亦曾經於中國廣州,江門,新會及蕪湖市,透過與當地的營辦商合作營運公共巴士業務,不過因應各種不同原因,新福利已經退出上述所有中國國內業務。

In 1988, Transportes Urbanos de Macau, S.A.R.L. (known as Transmac) was restructured from Companhia de Auto-Carros de Macau – Fok Lei which launched on 21 Feb., 1952 and once to be the largest public bus operator in Macau.

The fleet of Fok Lei mainly composed of the second hand bus from UK and total 11 double decker from different manufacturers and operators were imported from UK for the service running through Macau-Taipa Bridge (Ponte Governador Nobre de Carvalho) since 1975, among 2 of them were converted to open-top and widely welcomed by tourists. In addition, Fok Lei also in favour of the Albion Viking EVK55CL and total 17 units was acquired from Leyland, all of them were bodied by Union Auto and Sun Cheong in Hong Kong. In 1970s, Nissan Civilian was introduced to serve routes passing through the narrow streets and a further order of the new version Civilian was made in 1987, however, when this batch of 6 Civilian delivered, it was already the started of Transmac era.

Instead of the minibus, Fok Lei also acquired a batch of 10 Isuzu full-sized single decker between 1983 and 1984, 4 of them were air-conditioned and fitted with Wong Ming bodywork of Hong Kong and deployed on the luxury coach service 3A linking the Jetfoil. The remaining Isuzu bodied by Sun Cheong with the same style bodywork applied on the Albion and all of them were as conventional buses until transferred to Transmac, when they undergone modification works with an air-conditioning unit driven by auxiliary engine fitted.

When Fok Lei restructured into to Transmac in 1988, the management invested heavily on purchasing new air conditioned buses to improve service standard. Transmac standardized it fleet with the BK full-sized single decker and Rosa minibus from Mitsubishi, the latter playing an important role in the development history of Transmac. Transmac turned to European bus model in 1990s with the introduction of Dennis Dart, Mercedes Benz O814 and MAN 13.230 (the first super low floor bus in Macau). Electronic payment system was first developed and tested by Transmac in 1996 and it was finally become the "Macau Pass" that widely used in Macau today.

The end of the Casino franchised in Macau and the inscribed on the World Heritage List of "The Historic Centre of Macao" attract more and more tourists to Macau. Beside the development opportunities, public bus operators including Transmac also facing challenge as the free shuttle bus run by different casinos providing direct and convenient service to commuters. To go one step further, lacking of drivers in the labour market increasing the running costs and an adverse operation environment was resulted. As a part of solutions, Transmac started to introduce full-sized bus that made in the mainland China and instead of the minibus, neither European or Japan products were favoured.

Transmac once running business in the mainland China such as Guangzhou, Jiangmen, Xinhui and Wuhu under the partnership with the local operators, however, Transmac already quitted all the operation in the cities mentioned above.


車型 Vehicle Types
最後更新 Last Updated

五十鈴 Isuzu
22/04/2012

三菱Rosa Mitsubishi Rosa
25/07/2014

三菱Rosa (Euro 5) Mitsubishi Rosa (Euro 5)
25/07/2014

三菱 Fuso BK Mitsubishi Fuso BK
15/04/2012

丹尼士/亞歷山大丹尼士飛鏢 Dennis/Alexander Dennis Dart
11/07/2016

猛獅 13.230 MAN 13.230
10/06/2012

平治 O814 Mercedes Benz O814
24/06/2012

金龍XMQ6103G A/T Kinglong XMQ6103G A/T
19/08/2012

海格 Higer
02/09/2012

海格 KLQ6108GQ28E4 Higer KLQ6108GQ28E4
14/04/2018

海格 KLQ6129GQE4 Higer KLQ6129GQE4 14/12/2015

海格KLQ6115GQ Higer KLQ6115GQ 06/05/2017

黃海 Huang Hai 22/04/2012

宇通 ZK6128HG Yutong ZK6128HG 16/09/2018

宇通 ZK6180HGH Yutong ZK6180HGH 20/05/2019

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