五洲龍FDG6113EVG Wuzhoulong FDG6113EVG

憑藉相關科技不斷進步及成熟,綠色公交概念陸續在世界各地開始萌芽,不同的綠色能源公共交通工具,陸陸續續在不同城巿開始服務乘客之外,同時作進一步的測試,收集實際運作數據。

澳門及香港都曾先後於早年引進來自中國及紐西蘭的混能巴士,採用柴油及電力混合驅動的單層空調巴士,但可惜都因為車子性能,以及最重要的續航能力均未能令人滿意,最終被逼提早退役。隨著相關技術不斷進步,利用電力驅動一架十二米長的單層巴士,再不是一件遙不可及的事情。自二零一零年,香港九巴試用來自上海的申沃超級電容巴士,再於二零一二年試用青年的超級電容巴士,以及比亞迪的K9A電動巴士,當中後者更領有正式牌照及採用右駕駛室設計。至於澳門方面,為迎接二零一一年八月一日開始的新營運模式,澳巴除訂購的新車全數符合歐盟四型排放標準,更向五洲龍引進一批為數二十輛,使用天然氣作動力的新車,在經過一番籌備功夫後,最終於二零一三年二月底陸續投入服務。就在這批天然氣巴士投入服務接近半年之際,澳門引進首架純電動巴士。

這架運抵澳門作廣泛測試的純電動巴士是由五洲龍提供的FDG6113EVG,全長十一點三米,雖然屬低地台巴士款式,但低地台區域到中門之後便告停止。五洲龍FDG6113EVG合共提供二十三個座位及十六個企位,並於中門對面位置設有輪椅停泊區。全車動力由安放在車上不同位置的四十二個電池箱,合共一百六十八串電池提供,其中左右前軸上方空間,因為全用作放置電池,未有設置任何座位以及車窗。空調組件跟一般單層空調巴士一樣,被安放於車頂近中央位置。另外,這輛電動巴士裝有的報站系統,跟一般澳門巿面行走的巴士不一樣,是由上海凱倫提供,並未有設置全球衛星定向功能。

目前,這架純電動巴士由澳門政府租用,並交由澳巴營運,以便進行首階段的載客測試。這台FDG6113EVG自二零一三年七月五日開始,直至九月二十六日,被安排行走E01免費路線,每日早上六點半至下午五時正,循環行走湖畔大廈及蓮花圓形地之間,途經路段以寬闊平坦道路為主。有關當局於車廂內及湖畔大廈總站,派發有關是次計劃詳情的手摺,並且內附調查問卷,以收集巿民大眾就純電動巴士行車表現及車廂設施等的意見。當首階段測試完結之後,澳門政府會將純電動巴士駛入澳門半島的歷史核心區及舊城區,以便測試電動巴士在陡斜及狹窄路面的靈活性及表現。

到底日後純電動巴士普及性會如何,除了受制於巴士本身性能及續航能力外,電池壽命及相關更換成本,以及長達十一米車廂中,運載能力仍不及一架九米長的五洲龍中型巴士,都是巴士營運商在決定是否引入更多同類新車所需要考慮的因素。但值得肯定是,這架五洲龍FDG6113EVG在乘坐舒適度及運行表現皆十分理想,如果空調機沒有啟動時,巴士近乎沒有任何聲音,要不然巴士在行走時,身在其中是不會察覺巴士已經啟動。在澳門仍在試驗五洲龍電動巴士同時,香港中文大學已經落實購入兩架五洲龍純電動巴士,預計於二零一三年第三季度投入服務,接替原有五十鈴巴士之外,亦一併令乘客可以享受一個空調校巴旅程。

Benefited from the improvements of related technology, green public transportation started to spread in different cities . The development of green bus in Macau and Hong Kong can traced back to the first introduction of hybrid single decker from mainland China and New Zealand respectively. Both trials were unsuccessful as their poor performance and, the most fatal point, the endurance cannot meet the need of the operation environment.

It is not surprise that a 12m single decker can be purely electric at present. In Hong Kong, KMB first tested a supercapacitor bus of Sunwin in 2010 and followed by another demonstrator from YoungMan in 2012. To go one step further, a right-hand drive BYD K9A electric bus was delivered to KMB under testing on staff shuttle service to and from Lai Chi Kok Depot after registered in Jan., 2013. On the other hand, all new buses ordered by TCM in Macau for the new operation mode implemented on 1 Aug., 2011, meets Euro 4 emission standard. In addition, a batch of 20 CNG-powered Wuzhoulong FDG6101GCNG single decker was introduced and the first one was commissioned in the end of Feb., 2013.

Started from 5 Jul., 2013, instead of the CNG-powered buses, commuters can enjoy a ride of a pure electric bus, FDG6113EVG delivered from Wuzhoulong. The length of FDG6113EVG is 11.3m with low floor designed. The low floor area was ended at the centre exit and within the cabin, can accommodate 39 persons with 23 seats provided. There is a wheelchair parking bay provided opposite to the exit. The electric bus is powered by 42 battery boxes located at different position on the bus. There are no any seats and windows on both front axle and the interior air conditioned by a roof mounted unit. The pure electric bus was installed with a mid-way bus stop announcement system supplied by Shanghai Canrun Electron Technology Co.. Unliked the announcement system on the public buses serving in Macau, the system on FDG6113EVG is without any GPS function.

This pure electric bus is now serving circular route E01 daily, from 6:30 am to 5:00 pm, running between Edificio Do Lago and Rotunda Flor De Lotus. Leaflet with a questionnaire was available at both bus cabin and the Edificio Do Lago terminus for general public to express their opinion about the bus. When the trial on E01 completed on 26 Sep., 2013, the Macau government will carry out another trial on the road of Macau Peninsula, to test the flexibility and performance of the electric bus, a different testing bed with steep slope and narrow roads.

There are too many questions without any answer at this moment, how long is the battery life and how much for replacing it?. Moreover, though the bus is 11m in length, the carrying capacity even lower than a 9m Wuzhoulong midibus. All these questions are the concerns of bus operator about the introduction of electric bus and subsequently the popularity of this green public transport if affected. From my riding experience, I am sure that the both performance and comfort of FDG6113EVG left me with a good impression and even I cannot be awarded that the bus is running and the only noise was generated by the air conditioning. Finally, it is not too long for me to experience Wuzhoulong electric bus in Hong Kong as CUHK will introduce its first air conditioned school bus in the third quarter of 2013, and this is a electric bus by Wuzhoulong.

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